Concrete Examples

The following research examples highlight the existence of strong links between theory and practice. The results of academic research can be disseminated among franchise, retail and service chain professionals (as indicated by a series of articles published in specialized magazines such as Franchise Magazine).

Franchising and plural form      

According to franchisors, the coexistence of franchised units and company-owned units within a same chain is a source of synergies. But what is the point of view of franchisees?

Forty interviews with franchisees:

  • Confirmed the advantage of the plural form: growth, uniformity, local adaptation and innovation
  • Underlined some limits of the plural form: differences in terms of social status, internal competition, favoritism and managing costs

By reading this article[*], the franchising, retail and service chain professionals can reduce the “negative” perception of franchisees towards the limits of the plural form by attempting to alleviate the differences between the two statuses and trying to include company-owned unit managers into the “big family”, as the franchisees like to describe themselves. Moreover, special effort can be made to federate the members of the chain by organizing common meetings and common commercial challenges.

Franchising and Plural form, IJRDM

Franchising and Plural form, Franchise Magazine


[*] Perrigot R., Herrbach O. (2012), The plural form from the inside: A study of franchisees’ perceptions about the existence of company-owned outlets within their network, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 40, 7, 544-563.

Franchising and CSR      


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is very popular when it comes to big companies. But what about CSR practices in the franchise sector?

A study of the communication of 136 franchisors regarding their CSR activities on their websites stressed:

  • Assessing the CSR communication of the franchisors in France
  • Making a list of all the CSR practices in franchising
  • Underlining the most frequent CSR practices in franchising

The franchising, retail and service chain professionals can, by reading the article[*], compare their CSR communication to other franchisors. They can optimize this communication to reinforce their CSR positioning and differentiate themselves from other franchisors.

Franchising and CSR JSBM

Franchising and CSR, Franchise Magazine


[*] Perrigot R., Oxibar B., Déjean F. (forthcoming), Corporate Social Disclosure in the franchising sector: Insights from French franchisors’ websites, Journal of Small Business Management, DOI: 10.1111/jsbm.12074.


Franchising and Development      

Many franchisors adopt a multichannel strategy to attract customers in their stores. But what about communication strategy regarding franchisee candidates?

A case study of the Subway franchise chain in France through a series of 17 interviews (development agents and franchisees) stressed:

  • Underlining the interest of a multichannel strategy to attract franchisee candidates
  • Highlighting the growing importance of the Internet for communication among franchisee candidates
  • Confirming the necessity to maintain human contacts to recruit new franchisees

Franchising, retail and service chain professionals can, by reading the article[*], compare the means of communications they use to attract new franchisees to those of other chains and optimize their communication to increase the development of their chain. This article won the Highly Commended Award Winner at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2012.

Franchising and Development, IJRDM

Franchising and Development, Franchise Magazine


[*] Perrigot R., Basset G., Cliquet G. (2011), Multi-channel communication: the case of Subwayattracting new franchisees in France, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 39, 6, 434-455. Highly Commended Award Winner at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2012.

Franchise et Prix

The subject of resale pricing is a hot topic in franchising, due to its links with chain homogeneity and franchisee autonomy.

The franchisee is bound by current legislation and regulations, in addition to respecting the franchise contract clauses, to the extent that they are lawful, and potentially opposing contentious professional practices. Focusing on resale prices, the article* cover these three perspectives, that is, legal, contractual, and professional constraints, using a dual approach based on managerial and legal perspectives and illustrating our arguments using examples from European and French cases.


[*] BASSET G., PERRIGOT R. (2015), Franchisees’ Resale Price Policy Facing Legal, Contractual and Professional Constraints: Insights from European and French Perspectives, publié dans Research in Law and Economics

Franchise et Performance

This article paper draws on the dynamic capabilities approach to explain the performance of franchised chains. This approach is a useful lens to understand why some chains are more likely to drive superior performance than others.

Using this theoretical lens, we explore why and how several characteristics of franchised chains influence sales performance. This study includes 189 retail and service chains operating in the United States. Findings show that experience before franchising, length of training, chain age, franchising fees, and level of internationalization positively impact performance of franchised chains, whereas the proportion of franchised units has a curvilinear influence (inverted-U shape) on chains’ performance. Implications for franchising scholars and practitioners are discussed.

[*]EL AKREMI A., PERRIGOT R., PIOT-LEPETIT I. (2015), Examining the drivers for franchised chains performance through the lens of the dynamic capabilities approach, publié dans Journal of Small Business Management